Panayot Butchvarov

Professor Emeritus


  • Resemblance and Identity: An Examination of the Problem of Universals. Bloomington and London, Indiana University Press. 1966, pp. xiv + 208. e-book,
    • Selections reprinted in: 
      • Charles Landesman, ed., The Problem of Universals, New York, Basic Books, 1971. 
      • Larry Blackman, ed., Classics of Analytical Metaphysics, University Press of America, 1984.
      • Michael Tooley, ed., The Nature of properties: nominalism, realism, and trope theory, New York, Garland, 1999.
      • Reviewed by Philosophical Review, Philosophical Quarterly, Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Philosophical Books, Foundations of Language, New Scholasticism, Modern Schoolman, Choice.
  • The Concept of Knowledge. Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 1970, pp. 325.
    Designated by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books for 1970.
    • Available on Google.print
    • Reviewed by Philosophical Review, Journal of Philosophy, Review of Metaphysics, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Dialectica, Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger, Philosophy Forum, Dialogue, Choice, Theory and Decision.
  • Being Qua Being: A Theory of Identity, Existence and Predication. Bloomington and London, Indiana University Press, 1979, pp. 288. e-book,
    • Designated by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books for 1979.
    • Reviewed by Philosophical Review, Mind, Nous, The Thomist, Review of Metaphysics, Philosophical Quarterly, Library Journal, Choice, Heythrop Journal, Modern Schoolman, Philosophical Books, Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'etranger, Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale, The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Journal for Value Inquiry, Philosophical Topics, Religious Studies Review, Independent Journal of Philosophy.
  • Skepticism in Ethics. Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press. Clothbound edition, 1989, xii + 225 pages. 1989. e-book,
    • Reviewed by Choice, Canadian Philosophical Reviews, Ethics, Allgemeine Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, Review of Metaphysics, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
  • Skepticism about the External World. New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
    • Available also as e-book,
    • Available also on Google.print
  • Anthropocentrism in Philosophy. Eide Series, Walter de Gruyter, 2014.


  • "Concrete Entities and Concrete Relations," The Review of Metaphysics X (1957), pp. 412-22.
  • "The Self and Perceptions: A Study in Humean Philosophy," The Philosophical Quarterly IX (1959), pp. 97-115.
    Reprinted in The Library of Liberal Arts Reprint Series in Philosophy.
  • "On an Alleged Mistake of Logical Atomism," Analysis 19 (1959), pp. 132-37.
  • "The Concept of Possibility," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research XX (1960), pp. 318-37.
  • "Meaning-as-Use and Meaning-as-Correspondence," Philosophy XXXV (1960), pp. 314-25.
  • "Knowledge of Meanings and Knowledge of the World," Philosophy XXXIX (1964), pp. 145-60.
  • "The Limits of Ontological Analysis," in The Ontological Turn (Iowa City: The University of Iowa Press, 1974), pp. 3-37.
    Part I reprinted in Larry Blackman, ed., Classics of Analytical Metaphysics, University Press of America, 1984.
  • "Identity," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Vol. II: Studies in the Philosophy of Language (1977), pp. 70-89.
    Reprinted in Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979); also in Larry Blackman, ed., Classics of Analytical Metaphysics, University Press of America, 1984.
  • "Adverbial Theories of Consciousness," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Vol. V: Studies in Epistemology (1980), pp. 261-80.
  • "The Ontology of Philosophical Analysis," Nous XV (1981), pp. 3-13.
  • "On Reference and Sense," The Journal of Philosophy LXXIX (1982), pp. 551-53. (An abstract).
  • "That Simple, Indefinable, Nonnatural Property Good," The Review of Metaphysics XXXVI (1982), pp. 51-75.
  • "States of Affairs," in Radu J. Bogdan, ed., Roderick M. Chisholm (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1986), pp. 113-134.
  • "Our Robust Sense of Reality," Grazer Philosophische Studien 25/26 (1985-1986), pp. 403-421. Reprinted in Haller, Rudolf, ed., Non-Existence and Predication (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1986).
  • "Realism in Ethics," Midwest Studies in Philosophy XII (1988), pp. 395-412.
  • "Russell's Views on Reality," Grazer Philosophische Studien 32 (1988), pp. 165-167.
  • "The Demand for Justification in Ethics," Journal of Philosophical Research XV (1989-90), pp. 1-14. Special issue, with invited papers, on the topic of rationality. To be reprinted in James M. DuBois, Phenomenology and Value Realism (Kluwer).
  • Entries in Hans Burkhardt and Barry Smith, eds., Handbook of Metaphysics and Ontology (Munich: Philosophia Verlag, 1991), on "Knowledge" (1320 words), "Representation" (1055 words), and "Thought" (530 words).
  • Entries in Robert Audi, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), on "Metaphysics" (2352 words), "Conceptualism," (368 words), "Nicolai Hartmann" (348 words), "Natural Philosophy" (142 words), "Substantialism" (47 words), "First Philosophy" (66 words), "Metaphysical Realism" (496 words), and "Substance" (362 words).
  • Entry on "Categories" (2500) words, in E. Sosa and J. Kim, eds. The Blackwell Companion to Metaphysics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996). 
  • "Wittgenstein and Skepticism with Regard to the Senses," in Souren Teghrarian and Anthony Serafini, eds., Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy (Wakefield, N. H.: Longwood Academic Press, 1992, pp.110-33; Bristol, England: Thoemmes Press).
  • "Some Concerns About Self-Knowledge and the Human Genome Project," in Robert F. Weir, Susan Lawrence, and Evan Fales, eds., Genes and Human Self-Knowledge: Historicaland Philosophical Reflections on Modern Genetics (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press), 1994.
  • "The Untruth and the Truth of Skepticism," APA Presidential Address, Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (Vol. 67, No.4, January 1994), pp. 41-61. To be reprinted, with revisions and biographical information, in Richard T. Hull, Presidential Addresses of the American PhilosophicalAssociation, 1901-2000.
  • "Direct Realism without Materialism," Midwest Studies in Philosophy (Vol. XIX, 1994), pp. 1-21.
    Entry on "Moral Realism" (1500 words) in Supplement to Paul Edwards, Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1967, eight volumes), New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1996.
  • Entry on "Nominalism" (2000 words) in Don Garrett and Edward Barbanell, eds., Encyclopedia of Empiricism (Greenwood Press, 1997).
  • "The Relativity of 'Really's," in The Philosophy of P. F. Strawson, Library of Living Philosophers, ed. Lewis H. Hahn, 1998.
  • "Metaphysical Realism and Logical Nonrealism," in Richard Gale, ed., Essays in Metaphysics, pp. 282-382, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
  • "Ethics Dehumanized," Spindel Conference 2002: The Legacy of G.E. Moore, Volume XVI, Supplement, The Southern Journal of Philosophy, pp. 165-83.
    Reprinted with revisions in Mark Timmons and Terry Horgan, eds, Metaethics After Moore (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2006.
  • "Saying and Showing the Good," in Heather Dyke, ed., Time and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 137-158.
    Comments on the essays in "The Philosophy of Panayot Butchvarov: a Collegial Evaluation," ed. Larry Lee Blackman. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2005.
  • "Bergmann and Wittgenstein on Generality," Metaphysica, Vol. 7, No. 1, April 2006, pp. 123-145.
  • "Epistemology Dehumanized," in Quentin Smith, ed., Epistemology: New Essays, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 301-327.
  • "Thought," entry in Hans Burkhardt and Guido Imaguire, Handbook of Mereology, forthcoming "Facts," in Javier Cumpa, ed., Studies on the Ontology of Reinhardt Grossmann (Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag, 2010), pp. 71-93.
  • "Generic Statements and Antirealism," in Logos&Episteme, forthcoming.


  • Stephan Korner, Experience and Theory: An Essay in the Philosophy of Science, in Philosophy of Science 35 (1968), pp. 292-94.
  • Milton Fisk, Nature and Necessity: An Essay in Physical Ontology, in International Studies in Philosophy VII (1975), pp. 205-06.
  • Ross Harrison, On What There Must Be, in International Studies in Philosophy VIII (1976), pp. 195-96.
  • Jay Rosenberg, Linguistic Representation, in Nous XV (1981), pp. 81-84.
  • James Cargile, Paradoxes, in Review of Metaphysics 33 (1980), pp. 623-24.
  • David Wiggins, Sameness and Substance, in Review of Metaphysics XXXIV (1981), pp. 623-25.
  • Wilfrid Sellars, Naturalism and Ontology, in International Studies in Philosophy XIII (1981), pp. 118-19.
  • Paul Gochet, Outline of a Nominalist Theory of Propositions, in Nous XVII (1983), pp. 122-25.
  • David O'Connor, The Metaphysics of G. E. Moore, in The Review of Metaphysics XXXVII (1984), pp. 868-870.
  • Anthony Manser and Guy Stock, eds., The Philosophy of F. H. Bradley, in Nous XX (1986), pp. 435-437.
  • Stephan Korner, Metaphysics, in Canadian Philosophical Reviews VI (1986), pp. 288-289.
  • Reinhardt Grossmann, The Categorial Structure of the World, in International Studies in Philosophy XIX (1987), pp. 81-82.
  • T. L. S. Sprigge, The Vindication of Absolute Idealism, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, XLVIII (1988), pp. 768-72.
  • Quentin Smith, The Felt Meanings of the World, in Nous XXIII (1989), pp. 281-284.
  • James P. Moreland, Universals, Qualities, and Quality-Instances, in International Studies in Philosophy, XXI/3 (1989), pp.137-38.
  • John Kekes, The Examined Life, in The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. XLIII, No. 170 (December 1989), pp. 406-408.
  • Jan T. J. Srzednicki, ed., Stephan K&oumlrner - Philosophical Analysis and Reconstruction, in Canadian Philosophical Reviews, Vol. IX, No.9, September 1989, pp. 381-384.
  • David Weissman, Intuition and Ideality, in Nous, Vol. 24, #2, April 1990, pp. 349-352.
  • Miklos Almasi, The Philosophy of Appearances, in The Review Metaphysics 44 (March 1991), pp. 613-614.
  • Jose A. Benardete, Metaphysics, in International Studies in Philosophy, 1992 (XXIV/1), pp. 83-84.
  • Bruce Aune, Knowledge of the External World, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LIII, No. 2 (June, 1993), pp. 490-92.
  • C.J.F. Williams, Being, Identity, and Truth, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LV (1995), pp. 487-490.
  • Charles Taylor, Philosophical Arguments, in International Studies in Philosophy, XXXI-4 (August 1999), pp. 149-150.
  • Ben H. Letson, Davidson's Theory of Truth and Its Implications for Rorty's Pragmatism, in International Studies in Philosophy, XXXXV/4(2003), pp. 339-340.
  • Joseph Mendola, Human Thought, in International Studies in Philosophy, XXXXV/4(2003), pp. 373-374.
  • Quentin Smith, Ethical and Religious Thought in Analytic Philosophy, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 62 (2001) 732-735.
  • Gracia Jorge J. E., Metaphysics and its Task, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 65 (2002), pp. 728-730.
  • Loptson, Peter, Reality: The Fundamental Topics of Metaphysics, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 67 (2003), pp. 497-500.
  • Brian Hutchinson, G.E. Moore’s Ethical Theory: Resistance and Reconciliation, in International Studies in Philosophy, XXXXV/4(2003), pp. 304-306.
  • William F. Vallicella, A Paradigm Theory of Existence: Onto-Theology Vindicated, in Philo, Vol. 6, No 2, Spring-Winter 2003, pp. 301-306.Albert Casullo, A Priori Justification, in Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, 2003.08.08.
  • Jan Westerhoff, Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance, in Philosophical Quarterly, 57 (227), 301–303.

Work in progress

  • Commonsense Political Philosophy

Dissertations directed

  • John Casey
  • Albert Casullo
  • Dennis E. Bradford
  • Dean Wilcox Curtin
  • Jan Christopher Dejnozka
  • Deborah Fitzgerald Kenshur
  • Daniel Holbrook
  • Dennis Bradshaw
  • Susan Brennan
  • Mary Ella Savarino
  • Huo-Wang Lin
  • William O'Brien
  • Gordon Knight (co-director)
  • Ronald Alexander
  • Terri Elliott
  • Hao-Fang Wang
  • Hee-Jeong Kim
  • Kenneth Williford (co-director)

Professional history

  • Instructor, University of Baltimore, 1955-December 1956.
  • Assistant Professor, University of South Carolina, January 1957-59.
  • Assistant Professor, Syracuse University, 1959-61.
  • Associate Professor, Syracuse University, 1961-66.
  • Professor, Syracuse University, 1966-68.
  • Professor, University of Iowa, 1968-1995.
  • The University of Iowa Foundation Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, 1995-present.
  • Chairman, Department of Philosophy, University of Iowa, 1970-77.
  • Visiting professor, University of Iowa, Fall 1967.
  • Visiting Professor, University of Miami (Coral Gables), 1979-80.
  • Jerome S. Simon Lecturer, University of Toronto, Spring 1984.
  • Guest Professor, Akademie fuer Philosophie, Liechtenstein, Summer 1997.

Service at the University of Iowa

  • Chairman, Department of Philosophy, 1970-77.
  • Chair, College of Liberal Arts Self-Study Committee, 1992-93.
  • Member of the College of Liberal Arts Advisory Committee on Promotions and Tenure, the Presidential Lecture Committee, the Committee for Faculty Fellowships and Scholarships, University Research Council.
  • Chair, Iowa Review board.
  • President of the Humanities Society.
  • Member of review committees for the departments of Zoology, History, Botany, and Mathematics.
  • Member of the University Senate (three terms), The University of Iowa Press Board, the Historical Perspectives Coordinating Committee.
  • President of the Faculty Research Club.
  • Member of May Brodbeck Faculty Fellowships Committee, University of Iowa Press Review Committee, University of Iowa Libraries Review Committee.

Professional activities

  • American Philosophical Association, National Board of Officers
    • Member, 1991-94.
  • American Philosophical Association, Central Division.
    • President, 1992-93.
    • Vice-President, 1991-92
    • Chair, Nominating Committee, 1993-94.
    • Chairman, Program Committee for 1975.
    • Member, Program Committee for 1971.
    • Member, Program Committee for 1978.
    • Member, Nominating Committee for 1978.
  • Central States Philosophical Association.
    • President, 1988-89.
    • Vice-President, 1987-88.
    • Chair, Nominating Committee, 1990.
    • Member, Nominating Committee, 1991.
  • Editor, Journal of Philosophical Research, 1993-2002.
  • Referee for American Philosophical Quarterly, Nous, Philosophy and
  • Phenomenological Research,Journal for Philosophical Logic, Indiana
  • University Press, State University of New York Press, University
  • Press of Kansas, Rowman & Littlefield, University of Iowa Press,
  • Benjamins, Westview, McGill University Press,Lexington Books,
  • Australasian Journal of Philosophy, and probably some others.
  • University of Iowa Senior Faculty Fellow in the Humanities, 1983.
  • University of Iowa Council on Teaching Excellence Award, 1994.
  • State of Iowa Regents Award for Faculty Excellence, 1995.
  • Invited presentations: At meetings of the American Philosophical Association: Presidential Address, speaker in three symposia and chair of two, speaker in one colloquium, chair of a number of colloquia and commentator on a number of colloquium papers.
  • Speaker at annual meeting of the Metaphysical Society of America.
  • Presidential address, keynote address, commentator on paper, and chair at various meetings of the Central States Philosophical Association.
  • Chair and commentator on paper at meeting of the Bertrand Russell Society.
  • Keynote address at annual meeting of the Illinois Philosophical Association.
  • Lectures at the University of Virginia, Syracuse University (three lectures on three separate visits), University of Missouri at Columbia, Indiana University at Bloomington, Cornell College, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge (two lectures sponsored by the Council for Philosophical Studies), SUNY at Binghamton, SUNY College at Buffalo, SUNY at Geneseo, University of Miami (three lectures, two separate visits), American Catholic Philosophical Association (Florida chapter), University of Toronto (the inaugural Jerome S. Simon Philosophy Lectures - four lectures), East Carolina University (lecture at College of Medicine and special discussion, Department of Philosophy), University of Akron, Iowa State University, University of Minnesota at Morris, University of Texas at Austin, Westminster College (sponsored by the Council for Philosophical Studies), Northern Illinois University, University of Nebraska, University of Iowa on many occasions.
  • Lecturer at symposium on language and consciousness under the auspices of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
  • Two lectures (one the keynote address) at conference at the National University of Taiwan, and one at Chung University.
  • Lecture, Akademie fuer Philosophie, Liechtenstein, Spindel Conference 2002: University of Memphis.
Panayot Butchvarov
PhD, University of Virginia